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Neuroprotection Induced by Energy and Protein-Energy Undernutrition Is Phase-Dependent After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice.

Translational stroke research (2019-03-20)
Tayana Silva de Carvalho, Eduardo H Sanchez-Mendoza, Luiza M Nascentes Melo, Adriana R Schultz Moreira, Maryam Sardari, Egor Dzyubenko, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Dirk M Hermann
ABSTRACT

Malnutrition predisposes to poor stroke outcome. In animal models, undernutrition protected against ischemic injury in some, but not in other studies. In view of diverse stroke models and food restriction paradigms, the consequences of undernutrition are poorly understood. Herein, we exposed mice to energy-reduced and protein-energy-reduced diets for 7-30 days and subsequently induced intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Undernutrition phase dependently influenced ischemic injury. Short-lasting 7 days of protein-energy undernutrition, but not energy undernutrition, decreased post-ischemic brain leukocyte infiltration and microglial activation and reduced brain Il-1β mRNA, but did not protect against ischemic injury. Fourteen days of energy and protein-energy undernutrition, on the other hand, reduced ischemic injury despite absence of anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-oxidant genes (Sod-1, Sod-2, and Cat mRNAs) were regulated in the liver and, to a lesser extent, the ischemic brain, indicating an adapted, compensated stage. Conversely, 30 days of energy and protein-energy undernutrition caused progressive animal exhaustion associated with post-ischemic hypoperfusion, rise of metabolic markers (Sirt-1 and Glut-1 mRNAs, Sirt-1 protein) in the ischemic brain, and reregulation of pro- and anti-oxidant markers (now also Nox-4 and Gpx-3 mRNAs) in the liver. In the latter condition, no neuroprotection was noted. Our study suggests an adaptation of metabolic systems that provides neuroprotection in a circumscribed time window.

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