Anti-angiogenic drugs are an effective therapeutic method for the treatment of melanomas. Apatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which has potent inhibitory activity on tumor angiogenesis. Due to the low water solubility and stability of Apatinib, we aimed to design and develop poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Poloxamer 407 nanoparticles to encapsulate Apatinib (Apa/p NPs) to improve the efficacy of application in melanoma treatment. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro proliferation assays were used to assess the capacity of Apa/p NPs to suppress the growth of B16 cells. Furthermore, we constructed melanoma models using C57BL/6 mice, and preliminary evaluation of the effect and mechanism of Apa/p NPs on tumor inhibition was performed in vivo. The results showed that the size of Apa/p NPs averaged 136 ± 0.27 nm and the nanoparticles were evenly dispersed. Moreover, Apa/p NPs significantly inhibited the growth of B16 cells and melanoma tumors, compared with the naked drug treatment and control groups. The protein levels of VEGFR-2, phosphorylated (p)-VEGFR-2 and p-ERK1/2 in tumor tissues were inhibited by Apa/p NP treatment, as detected by Western blot. The results of this study suggested that Apa/p NPs could inhibit the growth of melanoma tumors by inhibiting the phosphorylation and expression of VEGFR-2 and downstream ERK1/2, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical application of Apatinib in the treatment of melanoma.