Motile sperm domain containing 2 (MOSPD2) is a single-pass membrane protein to which until recently little function had been ascribed. Although its mammalian homologs have been identified, the status of the mospd2 gene in lower vertebrates is still unknown. In the present study, cDNA of the mospd2 gene of barbel steed (Hemibarbus labeo) was cloned and sequenced to characterize its potential involvement in the innate immune system of this fish. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted barbel steed MOSPD2 protein contained an N-terminal extracellular portion composed of a CRAL-TRIO domain, a motile sperm domain, and a transmembrane domain, as well as a short C-terminal intracellular domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that barbel steed MOSPD2 is closely related to that of zebrafish. Barbel steed mospd2 transcripts were detected in a wide range of tissues, with the highest level being found in the gill. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment or Aeromonas hydrophila infection, mospd2 gene expression was significantly altered in the head kidney, spleen, and mid-intestine. The expression of mospd2 gene was detected in monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ), neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and was found to be mainly expressed in MO/MФ. At the same time, using flow cytometry, we also confirmed that MOSPD2 protein is located on MO/MФ, neutrophil, and lymphocyte membranes. Following treatment with LPS or A. hydrophila, MOSPD2 protein expression was induced in these immune cells. The migration of MO/MФ and neutrophils decreased significantly upon MOSPD2 blockade with anti-MOSPD2 IgG in a dose-dependent manner, whereas this treatment had no significant effect on lymphocytes migration. To the best of our knowledge, our study, for the first time, provides evidence that MOSPD2 mediates the migration of MO/MФ and neutrophils in a fish species.