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Gliding filament system giving both global orientational order and clusters in collective motion.

Physical review. E (2020-04-16)
Sakurako Tanida, Ken'ya Furuta, Kaori Nishikawa, Tetsuya Hiraiwa, Hiroaki Kojima, Kazuhiro Oiwa, Masaki Sano

Emergence and collapse of coherent motions of self-propelled particles are affected more by particle motions and interactions than by their material or biological details. In the reconstructed systems of biofilaments and molecular motors, several types of collective motion including a global-order pattern emerge due to the alignment interaction. Meanwhile, earlier studies show that the alignment interaction of a binary collision of biofilaments is too weak to form the global order. The multiple collision is revealed to be important to achieve global order, but it is still unclear what kind of multifilament collision is actually involved. In this study, we demonstrate that not only alignment but also crossing of two filaments is essential to produce an effective multiple-particle interaction and the global order. We design the reconstructed system of biofilaments and molecular motors to vary a probability of the crossing of biofilaments on a collision and thus control the effect of volume exclusion. In this system, biofilaments glide along their polar strands on the turf of molecular motors and can align themselves nematically when they collide with each other. Our experiments show the counterintuitive result, in which the global order is achieved only when the crossing is allowed. When the crossing is prohibited, the cluster pattern emerges instead. We also investigate the numerical model in which we can change the strength of the volume exclusion effect and find that the global orientational order and clusters emerge with weak and strong volume exclusion effects, respectively. With those results and simple theory, we conclude that not only alignment but also finite crossing probability are necessary for the effective multiple-particles interaction forming the global order. Additionally, we describe the chiral symmetry breaking of a microtubule motion which causes a rotation of global alignment.

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