Evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of genes involved in bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-505 in the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. We performed miRNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs between MC3T3-E1 cells treated with osteogenic induction medium (OIM) and control cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by using the TargetScan and miRDB databases. The expression of miR-505 in MC3T3-E1 cells was detected during osteogenic differentiation. After transfection with miR-505 mimic or miR-505 inhibitor, MC3T3-E1 cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers (Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osterix (OSX)) was detected. miR-505 was the most downregulated miRNA among the differentially expressed miRNAs. The RUNX2 gene was identified as a potential target of miR-505 using the target prediction program. miR-505 expression was downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The expression of osteogenic marker genes was inhibited in MC3T3-E1 cells after transfection with miR-505. However, the expression of osteogenic marker genes was upregulated after transfection with miR-505 inhibitor. This study is the first to report miR-505 could bind to the RUNX2 gene and thus regulate partly the dysfunction of osteoblasts differentiation, which is expected to be targets for the treatment of osteoporosis.