The screening of biologically active chemical compound libraries can be an efficient way to reposition Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA)-approved drugs or to discover new therapies for human diseases. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a form of air pollutant that causes significant lung damage when inhaled. This study illustrates drug repositioning with biapenem (BIPM) for the modulation of PM-induced lung injury. Biapenem was used for the treatment of severe infections. Mice were treated with BIPM via tail-vein injection after the intratracheal instillation of PM2.5. Alterations in the lung wet/dry weight, total protein/total cell count and lymphocyte count, inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), vascular permeability, and histology were monitored in the PM2.5-treated mice. BIPM effectively reduced the pathological lung injury, lung wet/dry weight ratio, and hyperpermeability caused by PM2.5. Enhanced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by PM2.5 in the pulmonary tissue was inhibited by BIPM. Moreover, increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and total protein by PM2.5 in the BALF were also decreased by BIPM treatment. In addition, BIPM markedly suppressed PM2.5-induced increases in the number of lymphocytes in the BALF. Additionally, the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was increased by BIPM. Administration of PM2.5 increased the expression levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, and the autophagy-related proteins LC3 II and Beclin 1, which were suppressed by BIPM. In conclusion, these findings indicate that BIPM has a critical anti-inflammatory effect due to its ability to regulate both the TLR4-MyD88 and mTOR-autophagy pathways, and may thus be a potential therapeutic agent against diesel PM2.5-induced pulmonary injury.