This study investigated the effects of vitamin A (VA) supplementation during late-stage pregnancy on longissimus dorsi muscle tissue development, birth traits, and growth performance of postnatal Korean native calves. In the preliminary experiment, twenty-six pregnant cattle (initial body weight [BW] = 319 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 30.1; 1st parity) were randomly assigned to the control and treatment groups. The treatment group received VA supplementation at 24,000 IU/d from gestational day 225 until delivery. In the main experiment, twelve pregnant cattle (initial BW = 317 kg [SD = 31.3]; 1st parity) were treated with VA supplementation at 24,000 IU/d (gestational days 150 to 225) and at 78,000 IU/d (gestational day 225 until delivery). Serum VA levels were analyzed in pregnant cattle, and the growth performance, gene expression, and serum VA levels were analyzed in the offspring. Serum VA levels in pregnant cattle decreased the late gestation in both experiments (p<0.001). In the main experiment, pregnant cattle at parturition and offspring at birth in the treatment group had higher serum VA levels than those in the control group (p<0.05). In the treatment groups, an increased birth weight was observed in the main experimental group (p = 0.022), and a tendency (p = 0.088) toward an increased birth weight was observed in the preliminary experimental group. However, no differences were observed in the feed intake, average daily gain, gain-to-feed ratio, or BW of 31-day-old calves. Gene expression was analyzed in longissimus dorsi muscles of 31-day-old calves. VA supplementation in pregnant cattle stimulated postnatal muscle development in offspring by elevating myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), MYF6, and myoblast determination levels (p<0.05). Moreover, preadipocyte-related marker genes such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and krüppel-like factor 2 were higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p<0.05). VA supplementation (78,000 IU/d) in late-stage pregnant cattle maintained serum VA levels. In addition, 78,000 IU/d VA supplementation increased the birth weight and expression of genes related to muscle and preadipocyte development in offspring. Overall, 78,000 IU/d VA supplementation in pregnant cattle is beneficial to newborn calves.