p66shc, a member of the shc adaptor protein family, has been shown to participate in regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis, apoptosis, and autophagosome formation. The present study was performed to investigate whether p66shc siRNA-encapsulated poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (p66shc siRNA-PLGA NPs) can attenuate spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The SNL-induced pain behavior was decreased in the p66shc siRNA-PLGA NP-treated group compared with the scrambled siRNA-PLGA NP-treated group. In the L5 spinal cord of the p66shc siRNA-PLGA NP-treated group, expression levels of phosphorylated p66shc, cleaved caspase-3, p62, and PINK1, as well as microglial activation, were also decreased. In addition, p66shc knockdown using p66shc siRNA reduced the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, p62, and PINK1, as well as proinflammatory mediators in the H2O2-treated HT22 neuronal cells. These results suggest that downregulation of p66shc expression in the spinal cord using p66shc siRNA-PLGA NPs could reduce the SNL-induced neuropathic pain by attenuating the SNL-induced aberrant autophagic, mitophagic, and neuroinflammatory processes in rats.