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Effect of grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the size, encapsulation efficiency and permeability of vesicles.

Biochimica et biophysica acta (2000-01-13)
A R Nicholas, M J Scott, N I Kennedy, M N Jones
ABSTRACT

Liposomes have been prepared by the vesicle extrusion method (VETs) from mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine with covalently linked poly(ethylene glycol) molecular mass 5000 and 2000 (DPPE-PEG 5000 and DPPE-PEG 2000) covering a range of 0-7.5 mole%. The encapsulation of D-glucose has been studied and found to be markedly dependent on the mole% DPPE-PEG. The permeability of the liposomes to D-glucose has been measured both as a function of temperature and liposome composition. The permeability coefficients for D-glucose increase with mole% DPPE-PEG 5000 and with temperature over the range 25-50 degrees C. The activation energies for glucose permeability range from 90 to 23 kJ mol(-1). The decrease in activation energy with increasing temperature is attributed to an increasing number of bilayer defects as the liposome content of PEG-grafted lipid is increased. The dependence of D-glucose encapsulation as a function of PEG-grafted lipid content is discussed in terms of the conformation of the PEG molecules on the inner surface of the bilayer. For liposomes containing DPPE-PEG 5000 the relative percentage encapsulation of glucose, assuming that the PEG surface layer excludes glucose, is comparable to that predicted from the mushroom and brush conformational models.