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The role of membrane tension in the action of antimicrobial peptides and cell-penetrating peptides in biomembranes.

Biophysical reviews (2019-05-17)
Moynul Hasan, Md Mizanur Rahman Moghal, Samiron Kumar Saha, Masahito Yamazaki
ABSTRACT

For antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with antimicrobial and bactericidal activities and cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) with activity to permeate through plasma membrane, their interactions with lipid bilayer region in plasma membrane play important roles in these functions. However, the elementary processes and mechanisms of their functions have not been clear. The single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) method has revealed the details of elementary processes of interaction of some AMPs and CPPs with lipid vesicles. In this review, we summarize the mode of action of AMPs such as magainin 2 (Mag) and CPPs such as transportan 10 (TP10), revealed by the single GUV methods, and especially we focus on the role of membrane tension in actions of Mag and TP10 and the mechanisms of their actions. First, we explain the characteristics of the single GUV method briefly. Next, we summarize the recent view on the effect of tension on physical properties of lipid bilayers and describe the role of tension in actions of Mag and TP10. Some experimental results indicate that Mag-induced pore is a stretch-activated pore. The effect of packing of transbilayer asymmetric lipid on Mag-induced pore formation is described. On the other hand, entry of fluorescent dye, carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled TP10 (i.e., CF-TP10), into single GUVs without pore formation is affected by tension and high concentration of cholesterol. Pre-pore model for translocation of CF-TP10 across lipid bilayer is described. The experimental methods and their analysis described here are useful for investigation of functions of the other types of AMPs, CPPs, and proteins.