Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) interaction plays a crucial role in tumor-associated immune escape. Here, we verify that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has higher PD-L1 expression than other subtypes. We then discover that nucleophosmin (NPM1) binds to PD-L1 promoter specifically in TNBC cells and activates PD-L1 transcription, thus inhibiting T cell activity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PARP1 suppresses PD-L1 transcription through its interaction with the nucleic acid binding domain of NPM1, which is required for the binding of NPM1 at PD-L1 promoter. Consistently, the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib elevates PD-L1 expression in TNBC and exerts a better effect with anti-PD-L1 therapy. Together, our research has revealed NPM1 as a transcription regulator of PD-L1 in TNBC, which could lead to potential therapeutic strategies to enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.