We have reported that of the 10 most commonly used adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype vectors, AAV6 is the most efficient in transducing primary human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro, as well as in vivo. More recently, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), was reported to be a superior replacement for human serum albumin (HSA) for ex vivo expansion of HSCs. Since HSA has been shown to increase the transduction efficiency of AAV serotype vectors, we evaluated whether PVA could also enhance the transduction efficiency of AAV6 vectors in primary human HSCs. We report here that up to 12-fold enhancement in the transduction efficiency of AAV6 vectors can be achieved in primary human HSCs with PVA. We also demonstrate that the improvement in the transduction efficiency is due to PVA-mediated improved entry and intracellular trafficking of AAV6 vectors in human hematopoietic cells in vitro, as well as in murine hepatocytes in vivo. Taken together, our studies suggest that the use of PVA is an attractive strategy to further improve the efficacy of AAV6 vectors. This has important implications in the optimal use of these vectors in the potential gene therapy and genome editing for human hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease.