Ameliorating methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants would have environmental benefits, but it is necessary to redirect metabolic hydrogen ([H]) toward useful sinks to also benefit animal productivity. We hypothesized that inhibiting rumen methanogenesis would increase de novo synthesis of microbial amino acids (AA) as an alternative [H] sink if sufficient energy and carbon are provided. We examined the effects of inhibiting methanogenesis with 9, 10-anthraquione (AQ) on mixed rumen batch cultures growing on cellulose or starch as sources of energy and carbon contrasting in fermentability, with ammonium (NH4+) or trypticase (Try) as nitrogen (N) sources. Inhibiting methanogenesis with AQ inhibited digestion with cellulose but not with starch, and decreased propionate and increased butyrate molar percentages with both substrates. Inhibiting methanogenesis with 9, 10-anthraquinone increased de novo synthesis of microbial AA with starch but not with cellulose. The decrease in the recovery of [H] caused by the inhibition of methanogenesis was more moderate with starch due to an enhancement of butyrate and AA as [H] sinks. There may be an opportunity to simultaneously decrease the emissions of CH4 and N with some ruminant diets and replace plant protein supplements with less expensive non-protein nitrogen sources such as urea.