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Transformation by the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate linked to EGLN activation.

Nature (2012-02-22)
Peppi Koivunen, Sungwoo Lee, Christopher G Duncan, Giselle Lopez, Gang Lu, Shakti Ramkissoon, Julie A Losman, Päivi Joensuu, Ulrich Bergmann, Stefan Gross, Jeremy Travins, Samuel Weiss, Ryan Looper, Keith L Ligon, Roel G W Verhaak, Hai Yan, William G Kaelin
ABSTRACT

The identification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in human cancers has rekindled the idea that altered cellular metabolism can transform cells. Inactivating SDH and FH mutations cause the accumulation of succinate and fumarate, respectively, which can inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent enzymes, including the EGLN prolyl 4-hydroxylases that mark the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Inappropriate HIF activation is suspected of contributing to the pathogenesis of SDH-defective and FH-defective tumours but can suppress tumour growth in some other contexts. IDH1 and IDH2, which catalyse the interconversion of isocitrate and 2-OG, are frequently mutated in human brain tumours and leukaemias. The resulting mutants have the neomorphic ability to convert 2-OG to the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG). Here we show that (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, stimulates EGLN activity, leading to diminished HIF levels, which enhances the proliferation and soft agar growth of human astrocytes. These findings define an enantiomer-specific mechanism by which the (R)-2HG that accumulates in IDH mutant brain tumours promotes transformation and provide a justification for exploring EGLN inhibition as a potential treatment strategy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
L-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt, ≥98.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt, ≥95% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt, ≥98.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt, ≥95.0% (GC)
Supelco
D-α-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt, analytical standard

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