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Potential contribution of ryanodine receptor 2 upregulation to cGMP/PKG signaling-induced cone degeneration in cyclic nucleotide-gated channel deficiency.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (2020-03-17)
Fan Yang, Hongwei Ma, Michael R Butler, Xi-Qin Ding
ABSTRACT

Photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels regulate Ca2+ influx in rod and cone photoreceptors. Mutations in cone CNG channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophies. Mice lacking functional cone CNG channel show endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated cone degeneration. The elevated cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling and upregulation of the ER Ca2+ channel ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) have been implicated in cone degeneration. This work investigates the potential contribution of RyR2 to cGMP/PKG signaling-induced ER stress and cone degeneration. We demonstrated that the expression and activity of RyR2 were highly regulated by cGMP/PKG signaling. Depletion of cGMP by deleting retinal guanylate cyclase 1 or inhibition of PKG using chemical inhibitors suppressed the upregulation of RyR2 in CNG channel deficiency. Depletion of cGMP or deletion of Ryr2 equivalently inhibited unfolded protein response/ER stress, activation of the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, and activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein, leading to early-onset cone protection. In addition, treatment with cGMP significantly enhanced Ryr2 expression in cultured photoreceptor-derived Weri-Rb1 cells. Findings from this work demonstrate the regulation of cGMP/PKG signaling on RyR2 in the retina and support the role of RyR2 upregulation in cGMP/PKG signaling-induced ER stress and photoreceptor degeneration.

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