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In Search of a Phosphorus Dendrimer-Based Carrier of Rose Bengal: Tyramine Linker Limits Fluorescent and Phototoxic Properties of a Photosensitizer.

International journal of molecular sciences (2020-06-27)
Krzysztof Sztandera, Monika Marcinkowska, Michał Gorzkiewicz, Anna Janaszewska, Regis Laurent, Maria Zabłocka, Serge Mignani, Jean Pierre Majoral, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a skin cancer treatment alternative to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This method exploits three elements: a phototoxic compound (photosensitizer), light source and oxygen. Upon irradiation by light of a specific wavelength, the photosensitizer generates reactive oxygen species triggering the cascade of reactions leading to cell death. The positive therapeutic effect of PDT may be limited due to low solubility, low tumor specificity and inefficient cellular uptake of photosensitizers. A promising approach to overcome these obstacles involves the use of nanocarrier systems. The aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of the application of phosphorus dendrimers as carriers of a photosensitizer-rose bengal (RB). The primary goal involved the synthesis and in vitro studies of covalent drug-dendrimer conjugates. Our approach allowed us to obtain RB-dendrimer conjugates with the use of tyramine as an aromatic linker between the carrier and the drug. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, size and zeta potential measurements and spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dialysis to check the drug release from the conjugate, flow cytometry to specify intracellular uptake, and singlet oxygen generation assay were also applied. Finally, we used MTT assay to determine the biological activity of the tested compounds. The results of our experiments indicate that the conjugation of RB to phosphorus dendrimers via the tyramine linker decreases photodynamic activity of RB.

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Sigma-Aldrich
1-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrrolidine, 98%