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Regenerative Reprogramming of the Intestinal Stem Cell State via Hippo Signaling Suppresses Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cell stem cell (2020-07-31)
Priscilla Cheung, Jordi Xiol, Michael T Dill, Wei-Chien Yuan, Riccardo Panero, Jatin Roper, Fernando G Osorio, Dejan Maglic, Qi Li, Basanta Gurung, Raffaele A Calogero, Ömer H Yilmaz, Junhao Mao, Fernando D Camargo
ABSTRACT

Although the Hippo transcriptional coactivator YAP is considered oncogenic in many tissues, its roles in intestinal homeostasis and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate that the Hippo kinases LATS1/2 and MST1/2, which inhibit YAP activity, are required for maintaining Wnt signaling and canonical stem cell function. Hippo inhibition induces a distinct epithelial cell state marked by low Wnt signaling, a wound-healing response, and transcription factor Klf6 expression. Notably, loss of LATS1/2 or overexpression of YAP is sufficient to reprogram Lgr5+ cancer stem cells to this state and thereby suppress tumor growth in organoids, patient-derived xenografts, and mouse models of primary and metastatic CRC. Finally, we demonstrate that genetic deletion of YAP and its paralog TAZ promotes the growth of these tumors. Collectively, our results establish the role of YAP as a tumor suppressor in the adult colon and implicate Hippo kinases as therapeutic vulnerabilities in colorectal malignancies.

MATERIALS
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Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tamoxifen, ≥99%
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(Z)-4-Hydroxytamoxifen, ≥98% Z isomer
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Nicotinamide, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
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Azoxymethane, 13.4 M, ≥98%
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Hematoxylin Solution, Harris Modified
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Nutlin-3, ≥98% (HPLC), powder