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  • Age-dependent seroprevalence of dengue and chikungunya: inference from a cross-sectional analysis in Esmeraldas Province in coastal Ecuador.

Age-dependent seroprevalence of dengue and chikungunya: inference from a cross-sectional analysis in Esmeraldas Province in coastal Ecuador.

BMJ open (2020-10-18)
Irina Chis Ster, Alejandro Rodriguez, Natalia Cristina Romero, Andrea Lopez, Martha Chico, Joel Montgomery, Philip Cooper
ABSTRACT

There are few population-based estimates for prevalence of past exposure to dengue and chikungunya viruses despite common epidemiological features. Here, we have developed a novel statistical method to study patterns of age-dependent prevalence of immunity in a population following exposures to two viruses which share similar epidemiological features including mode of transmission and induction of long-lasting immunity. This statistical technique accounted for sociodemographic characteristics associated with individuals and households. The data consist of a representative sample from an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort set-up in a tropical district in coastal Ecuador (Esmeraldas). We collected data and blood samples from 319 individuals belonging to 152 households following epidemics of the infections in 2015 in Latin America. Plasma was tested for the presence of specific IgG antibodies to dengue and chikungunya viruses by commercial ELISA and defined a bivariate binary outcome indicating individuals' past exposure status to dengue and chikungunya (ie, presence/absence of IgG antibodies to dengue or chikungunya or both). Dengue seroprevalence increased rapidly with age reaching 97% (95% credible interval (CrI): 93%-99%) by 60 years. Chikungunya seroprevalence peaked at 42% (95% CrI: 18%-66%) around 9 years of age and averaged 27% (95% CrI: 8.7%-51.6%) for all ages. Rural areas were more likely to be associated with dengue-only exposure while urban areas and shorter distance to the nearest household were associated with exposures to both. Women living in urban settings were more likely to be chikungunya seropositive while rural men were more likely to be dengue seropositive. Dengue seroprevalence was strongly age dependent consistent with endemic exposure while that of chikungunya peaked in childhood consistent with the recent emergence of the virus in the study area. Our findings will inform control strategies for the two arboviruses in Ecuador including recommendations by the WHO on dengue vaccination.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Human IgG ELISA Kit, for serum, plasma