Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a serine/threonine kinase. Although many biological functions of LKB1 have been identified, the role of hypothalamic LKB1 in the regulation of central energy metabolism and susceptibility to obesity is unknown. Therefore, we constructed POMC neuron-specific LKB1 knockout mice (PomcLkb1 KO) and studied it at the physiological, morphological, and molecular biology levels. Eight-week-old male PomcLkb1 KO mice and their littermates were fed a standard chow fat diet (CFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the fat mass and lean mass. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests and serum biochemical markers were evaluated in the experimental mice. In addition, the levels of peripheral lipogenesis genes and central energy metabolism were measured. PomcLkb1 KO mice did not exhibit impairments under normal physiological conditions. After HFD intervention, the metabolic phenotype of the PomcLkb1 KO mice changed, manifesting as increased food intake and an enhanced obesity phenotype. More seriously, PomcLkb1 KO mice showed increased leptin resistance, worsened hypothalamic inflammation and reduced POMC neuronal expression. We provide evidence that LKB1 in POMC neurons plays a significant role in regulating energy homeostasis. LKB1 in POMC neurons emerges as a target for therapeutic intervention against HFD-induced obesity and metabolic diseases.