Thioredoxins (Trxs) and thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) encompass a highly complex network involved in sustaining thiol-based redox homeostasis in plant tissues. The purpose of the study was to gain a new insight into transcriptional reprogramming of the several genes involved in functioning of Trx/TrxR system in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings, exposed to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or the rose-grass aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walk.) infestation. The biotests were performed on two maize genotypes (susceptible Złota Karłowa and relatively resistant Waza). The application of real-time qRT-PCR technique allowed to identify a molecular mechanism triggered in more resistant maize plants, linked to upregulation of thioredoxins-encoding genes (Trx-f, Trx-h, Trx-m, Trx-x) and thioredoxin reductase genes (Ftr1, Trxr2). Significant enhancement of TrxR activity in aphid-infested Waza seedlings was also demonstrated. Furthermore, we used an electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of M. dirhodum stylet activities in seedlings of the two studied maize varieties. Duration of phloem phase (E1 and E2 models) of rose-grass aphids was about three times longer while feeding in Waza plants, compared to Złota Karłowa cv. The role of activation of Trx/TrxR system in maintaining redox balance and counteracting oxidative-induced damages of macromolecules in aphid-stressed maize plants is discussed.