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Persistence of serum and saliva antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens in COVID-19 patients.

Science immunology (2020-10-10)
Baweleta Isho, Kento T Abe, Michelle Zuo, Alainna J Jamal, Bhavisha Rathod, Jenny H Wang, Zhijie Li, Gary Chao, Olga L Rojas, Yeo Myong Bang, Annie Pu, Natasha Christie-Holmes, Christian Gervais, Derek Ceccarelli, Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani, Furkan Guvenc, Patrick Budylowski, Angel Li, Aimee Paterson, Feng Yun Yue, Lina M Marin, Lauren Caldwell, Jeffrey L Wrana, Karen Colwill, Frank Sicheri, Samira Mubareka, Scott D Gray-Owen, Steven J Drews, Walter L Siqueira, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Mario Ostrowski, James M Rini, Yves Durocher, Allison J McGeer, Jennifer L Gommerman, Anne-Claude Gingras
ABSTRACT

While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-100, laboratory grade
Sigma-Aldrich
IgG from human serum, reagent grade, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), essentially salt-free, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, for use in purification of Histidine-tagged proteins, DMSO solution
Sigma-Aldrich
IgM from human serum, reagent grade, ~95% (HPLC), buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
IgA from human serum, reagent grade, ≥95% (HPLC), buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Nitrilotriacetic acid disodium salt, Sigma Grade, ≥99%

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