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Exploiting Lipid and Polymer Nanocarriers to Improve the Anticancer Sonodynamic Activity of Chlorophyll.

Pharmaceutics (2020-07-08)
Federica Bosca, Federica Foglietta, Alberto Gimenez, Roberto Canaparo, Giovanni Durando, Ilaria Andreana, Alessandro Barge, Elena Peira, Silvia Arpicco, Loredana Serpe, Barbara Stella
ABSTRACT

Sonodynamic therapy is an emerging approach that uses low-intensity ultrasound to activate a sonosensitizer agent triggering its cytotoxicity for selective cancer cell killing. Several molecules have been proposed as sonosensitizer agents, but most of these, as chlorophyll, are strongly hydrophobic with a low selectivity towards cancer tissues. Nanocarriers can help to deliver more efficiently the sonosensitizer agents in the target tumor site, increasing at the same time their sonodynamic effect, since nanosystems act as cavitation nuclei. Herein, we propose the incorporation of unmodified plant-extracted chlorophyll into nanocarriers with different composition and structure (i.e., liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles) to obtain aqueous formulations of this natural pigment. The nanocarriers have been deeply characterized and then incubated with human prostatic cancer cells (PC-3) and spheroids (DU-145) to assess the influence of the different formulations on the chlorophyll sonodynamic effect. The highest sonodynamic cytotoxicity was obtained with chlorophyll loaded into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles, showing promising results for future clinical investigations on sonodynamic therapy.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
meso-Tetraphenylporphyrin, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Trilaurin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Amyloid Protein Non-Aβ Component, ≥80% (HPLC)