UBE2O, an E2/E3 hybrid ubiquitin-protein ligase, has been implicated in the regulation of adipogenesis, erythroid differentiation, and tumor proliferation. However, its role in cancer radioresistance remains completely unknown. Here, we uncover that UBE2O interacts and targets Mxi1 for ubiquitination and degradation at the K46 residue. Furthermore, we show that genetical or pharmacological blockade of UBE2O impairs tumor progression and radioresistance in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo, and these effects can be restored by Mxi1 inhibition. Moreover, we demonstrate that UBE2O is overexpressed and negatively correlated with Mxi1 protein levels in lung cancer tissues. Collectively, our work reveals that UBE2O facilitates tumorigenesis and radioresistance by promoting Mxi1 ubiquitination and degradation, suggesting that UBE2O is an attractive radiosensitization target for the treatment of lung cancer.