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In Vitro and In Vivo Biocompatibility Studies of a Cast and Coated Titanium Alloy.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) (2020-07-31)
Ursula Sommer, Stephan Laurich, Lucie de Azevedo, Katharina Viehoff, Sabine Wenisch, Ulrich Thormann, Volker Alt, Christian Heiss, Reinhard Schnettler
ABSTRACT

The biocompatibility of a cast porous and with a calcium titanate reaction layer functionalized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb) was tested by means of cell culture, and a small (rat) and large animal (sheep) model. The uncoated titanium material served as a control. In-vitro tests included the validation of osteoblast-like cells attached to the surface of the material with scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal actin as well as their osteogenic development, the ability to mineralize, and their vitality. Following the in-vitro tests a small animal (rat) and big animal (sheep) model were accomplished by inserting a cylindrical titanium implant into a drill hole defect in the femoral condyle. After 7, 14, and 30 days (rat) and 6 months (sheep) the condyles were studied regarding histological and histomorphometrical characteristics. Uncoated and coated material showed a good biocompatibility both in cell culture and animal models. While the defect area in the rat is well consolidated after 30 days, the sheep show only little bone inside the implant after 6 months, possibly due to stress shielding. None of the executed methods indicated a statistically significant difference between coated and uncoated material.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Triton X-100, laboratory grade
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Trizma® base, BioPerformance Certified, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, ≥99.9% (titration)
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Eukitt® Quick-hardening mounting medium, for microscopy
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Calcein, Used for the fluorometric determination of calcium and EDTA titration of calcium in the presence of magnesium.
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Toluidine Blue, for microscopy (Hist., Vit.)
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