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Hp-s1 Ganglioside Suppresses Proinflammatory Responses by Inhibiting MyD88-Dependent NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglial Cells.

Marine drugs (2020-10-03)
Jui-Hu Shih, Yow-Fu Tsai, I-Hsun Li, Ming-Hua Chen, Yuahn-Sieh Huang
ABSTRACT

Hp-s1 ganglioside is isolated from the sperm of sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus). In addition to neuritogenic activity, the biological function of Hp-s1 in neuroinflammation is unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of Hp-s1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. MG6 microglial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of different Hp-s1 concentrations. The anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of Hp-s1 in LPS-activated microglia cells were assessed through a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. We found that Hp-s1 suppressed not only the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 but also the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Hp-s1 inhibited the LPS-induced NF-κB signaling pathway by attenuating the phosphorylation and translocation of NF-κB p65 and by disrupting the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor κB-α (IκBα). Moreover, Hp-s1 inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Hp-s1 also reduced the expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TNF receptor-associated factors 6 (TRAF6), which are prerequisites for NF-κB and MAPKs activation. These findings indicated that Hp-s1 alleviated LPS-induced proinflammatory responses in microglial cells by downregulating MyD88-mediated NF-κB and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways, suggesting further evaluation as a new anti-neuroinflammatory drug.

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Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture