Membranes for guided bone regeneration should have a mechanical structure and a chemical composition suitable for mimicking biological structures. In this work, we pursue the development of periosteum-inspired bilayered membranes obtained by crosslinking alginate with different amounts of nanohydroxyapatite. Alginate-nanohydroxyapatite interaction was studied by rheology and infrared spectroscopy measurements. The membranes were characterized regarding their tensile strength, degradation and surface morphology. Finally, cell cultures were performed on each side of the membranes. The ionic bonding between alginate polysaccharide networks and nanohydroxyapatite was proven, and had a clear effect in the strength and microstructure of the hydrogels. Distinct surface characteristics were achieved on each side of the membranes, resulting in a highly porous fibrous side and a mineral-rich side with higher roughness and lower porosity. Moreover, the effect of amount of nanohydroxyapatite was reflected in a decrease of the membranes' plasticity and an increment of degradation rate. Finally, it was proved that osteoblast-like cells proliferated and differentiated on the mineral-rich side, specially when a higher amount of nanohydroxyapatite was used, whereas fibroblasts-like cells were able to proliferate on the fibrous side. These periosteum-inspired membranes are promising biomaterials for guided tissue regeneration applications.