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  • Urethane attenuates early neuropathology of diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced status epilepticus in rats.

Urethane attenuates early neuropathology of diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced status epilepticus in rats.

Neurobiology of disease (2020-04-14)
Asheebo Rojas, Jennifer Wang, Avery Glover, Raymond Dingledine
ABSTRACT

Seizures can be evident within minutes of exposure to an organophosphorus (OP) agent and often progress to status epilepticus (SE) resulting in a high mortality if left untreated. Effective medical countermeasures are necessary to sustain patients suffering from OP poisoning and to mitigate the ensuing brain injury. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single subanesthetic dose of urethane prevents neuropathology measured 24 h following diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-induced SE. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with DFP to induce SE. During SE rats displayed increased neuronal activity in the hippocampus and an upregulation of immediate early genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators. In additional experiments rats were administered diazepam (10 mg/kg, ip) or urethane (0.8 g/kg, sc) 1 h after DFP-induced SE and compared to rats that experienced uninterrupted SE. Cortical electroencephalography (EEG) and power analysis strengthen the conclusion that urethane effectively terminates SE and prevents the overnight return of seizure activity. Neurodegeneration in limbic brain regions and the seizure-induced upregulation of key inflammatory mediators present 24 h after DFP-induced SE were strongly attenuated by administration of urethane. A trivial explanation for these beneficial effects, that urethane simply reactivates acetylcholinesterase, has been ruled out. These findings indicate that, by contrast to rats administered diazepam or rats that experience uninterrupted SE, the early neuropathology after SE is prevented by subanesthetic urethane, which terminates rather than interrupts, SE.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Urethane, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Diisopropylfluorophosphate