This work describes a novel application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APGC-TOF-MS) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the simultaneous analysis of hydrocarbons and naphthenic acids (NAs) species in raw and ozone-treated oil sands process water (OSPW). SPME method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated fibers was validated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to ensure the SPME extractions were operated appropriately. The ionization pathways of the hydrocarbon species in OSPW in the APGC source were verified by analyzing a mixture of eight polyaromatic hydrocarbons which were ionized primarily via charge transfer to produce [M+] while NAs in OSPW were found to be ionized through protonation to generate [MH+] in the wet APGC source. SPME/APGC-TOF-MS analysis demonstrated a different composition profile in OSPW #1, with 74.5% of hydrocarbon species, 23.4% of O2-NAs, and 2.1% of the oxidized NA species at extraction pH 2.0 compared with that obtained by UPLC-TOF-MS analysis (36.9% of O2-NAs, 26.8% of O3-NAs, 24.9% of O4-NAs, 9.1% of O5-NAs, 2.3% of O6-NAs). Moreover, the peak areas of the total NAs and the total peak areas of NAs + hydrocarbons measured by SPME/APGC-TOF-MS correlated excellently with the total NA concentration determined by UPLC-TOF-MS (R2 = 0.90) and the concentrations of the total acid-extractable organics determined by SPME/GC-FID (R2 = 0.98), respectively. APGC-TOF-MS integrated with the SPME techniques could extend the range of target compounds and be a promising alternative to evaluate and characterize NAs and hydrocarbon in different water types.