The gut microbiota has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of intestinal viruses, including enteroviruses, noroviruses and rotaviruses (RVs), where stimulatory and inhibitory effects on infectivity have been reported. With the aim of determining whether members of the microbiota interact with RVs during infection, a combination of anti-RV antibody labeling, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the interaction between specific bacteria and RV in stool samples of children suffering from diarrhea produced by G1P RV. The genera Ruminococcus and Oxalobacter were identified as RV binders in stools, displaying enrichments between 4.8- and 5.4-fold compared to samples nonlabeled with anti-RV antibodies. In vitro binding of the G1P Wa human RV strain to two Ruminococcus gauvreauii human isolates was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis in R. gauvreauii with antibodies directed to several histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) indicated that these bacteria express HBGA-like substances on their surfaces, which can be the target for RV binding. Furthermore, in vitro infection of the Wa strain in differentiated Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced by incubation with R. gauvreauii. These data, together with previous findings showing a negative correlation between Ruminococcus levels and antibody titers to RV in healthy individuals, suggest a pivotal interaction between this bacterial group and human RV. These results reveal likely mechanisms of how specific bacterial taxa of the intestinal microbiota could negatively affect RV infection and open new possibilities for antiviral strategies.