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Nitrogen metabolism in three non-conventional wine yeast species: A tool to modulate wine aroma profiles.

Food microbiology (2020-12-07)
Stéphanie Rollero, Audrey Bloem, Jeanne Brand, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Carole Camarasa, Benoit Divol
ABSTRACT

The positive impact of certain non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the aromatic profile of wines has been well documented in literature and their industrial use in association with S. cerevisiae is now recommended. Competition between non-Saccharomyces species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for various nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, greatly impacts the production of aroma compounds. In this study, we further explored the impact of different nitrogen nutrition strategies on the production of carbon and sulphur volatile compounds of three non-Saccharomyces strains, namely Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae sequentially inoculated with S. cerevisiae in Sauvignon blanc and Shiraz grape musts. Nitrogen additions were implemented according the specific requirement of each species. At the end of fermentation, we observed specific metabolic signatures for each strain in response to the nature of the nitrogen source suggesting strain-specific metabolic fluxes present. Overall, these results confirmed and further explored the interconnection between nitrogen sources and aroma metabolism (including that of higher alcohols, fatty acids, esters and volatile sulphur compounds), and their variations according to species and the nature of the nitrogen source. The knowledge generated provides new insights to modulate the aroma profile of wines produced with non-Saccharomyces species.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Cysteine, technical grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl thioacetate, ≥98%