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The Role of Intestinal Dysbacteriosis Induced Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Disorder in Inflammaging in Atherosclerosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology (2021-04-06)
Yingxin Sun, Danbin Wu, Wenyun Zeng, Yefei Chen, Maojuan Guo, Bin Lu, Huhu Li, Chun Sun, Lin Yang, Xijuan Jiang, Qing Gao

Aging induced chronic systemic inflammatory response is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS) development; however, the detailed mechanism is yet to be elucidated. To explore the underlying mechanism of how aging aggravates AS advancement. A young (five-week-old, YM) and aged group (32-week-old, OM) male apoE-/- mice with a high fat diet were used as models, and age-matched male wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice were used as controls. AS lesion size, serum lipid profile, cytokines, and gut microbiota-derived LPS were analyzed after 32 weeks of diet intervention. A correlation analysis between the 16S rRNA sequencing of the feces and serum metabolomics profiles was applied to examine the effect of their interactions on AS. ApoE-/- mice developed severe atherosclerosis and inflammation in the aorta compared to the WT groups, and aged apoE-/- mice suffered from a more severe AS lesion than their younger counterparts and had low-grade systemic inflammation. Furthermore, increased levels of serum LPS, decreased levels of SCFAs production, as well as dysfunction of the ileal mucosal barrier were detected in aged mice compared with their younger counterparts. There were significant differences in the intestinal flora composition among the four groups, and harmful bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae_FCS020, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-009, Acetatifactor, Lachnoclostridium and Lactobacillus_gasseri were significantly increased in the aged apoE-/- mice compared with the other groups. Concurrently, metabolomics profiling revealed that components involved in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway such as 20-HETE, PGF2α, arachidonic acid, and LTB4 were significantly higher in the aged AS group than in the other groups. This suggested that metabolic abnormalities and disorders of intestinal flora occurred in AS mice. Aging not only altered the gut microbiome community but also substantially disturbed metabolic conditions. Our results confirm that AA metabolism is associated with the imbalance of the intestinal flora in the AS lesions of aged mice. These findings may offer new insights regarding the role of gut flora disorders and its consequent metabolite changed in inflammaging during AS development.

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