Testicular expression of taste receptor type 1 subunit 3 (T1R3), a sweet/umami taste receptor, has been implicated in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in mice. We explored the role of testicular T1R3 in porcine postnatal development using the Congjiang Xiang pig, a rare Chinese miniature pig breed. Based on testicular weights, morphology, and testosterone levels, four key developmental stages were identified in the pig at postnatal days 15-180 (prepuberty: 30 day; early puberty: 60 day; late puberty: 90 day; sexual maturity: 120 day). During development, testicular T1R3 exhibited stage-dependent and cell-specific expression patterns. In particular, T1R3 levels increased significantly from prepuberty to puberty (p < 0.05), and expression remained high until sexual maturity (p < 0.05), similar to results for phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2). The strong expressions of T1R3/PLCβ2 were observed at the cytoplasm of elongating/elongated spermatids and Leydig cells. In the eight-stage cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in pigs, T1R3/PLCβ2 levels were higher in the spermatogenic epithelium at stages II-VI than at the other stages, and the strong expressions were detected in elongating/elongated spermatids and residual bodies. The message RNA (mRNA) levels of taste receptor type 1 subunit 1 (T1R1) in the testis showed a similar trend to levels of T1R3. These data indicate a possible role of T1R3 in the regulation of spermatid differentiation and Leydig cell function.