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  • 16-bromoepiandrosterone, an activator of the mammalian immune system, inhibits glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi and is toxic to these parasites grown in culture.

16-bromoepiandrosterone, an activator of the mammalian immune system, inhibits glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi and is toxic to these parasites grown in culture.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry (2010-06-24)
Artur T Cordeiro, Otavio H Thiemann
ABSTRACT

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first step of the pentose-phosphate pathway which supplies cells with ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and NADPH. R5P is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nucleotides while NADPH is the cofactor of several dehydrogenases acting in a broad range of biosynthetic processes and in the maintenance of the cellular redox state. RNA interference-mediated reduction of G6PDH levels in bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei validated this enzyme as a drug target against Human African Trypanosomiasis. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a human steroidal pro-hormone and its derivative 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (16BrEA) are uncompetitive inhibitors of mammalian G6PDH. Such steroids are also known to enhance the immune response in a broad range of animal infection models. It is noteworthy that the administration of DHEA to rats infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Human American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas' disease), reduces blood parasite levels at both acute and chronic infection stages. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro effect of DHEA derivatives on the proliferation of T. cruzi epimastigotes and their inhibitory effect on a recombinant form of the parasite's G6PDH (TcG6PDH). Our results show that DHEA and its derivative epiandrosterone (EA) are uncompetitive inhibitors of TcG6PDH, with K(i) values of 21.5 ± 0.5 and 4.8 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. Results from quantitative inhibition assays indicate 16BrEA as a potent inhibitor of TcG6PDH with an IC₅₀ of 86 ± 8 nM and those from in vitro cell viability assays confirm its toxicity for T. cruzi epimastigotes, with a LD₅₀ of 12 ± 8 μM. In summary, we demonstrated that, in addition to host immune response enhancement, 16BrEA has a direct effect on parasite viability, most likely as a consequence of TcG6PDH inhibition.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
trans-Dehydroandrosterone, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
trans-Androsterone