Great advances have been made over the last four decades in therapeutic and diagnostic applications of antibodies. The activity maturation of antibody candidates, however, remains a significant challenge. To address this problem, we present a method that enables the systematic enhancement of the activity of a single-domain antibody through the post-translational installation of non-canonical side chains by chemical mutagenesis. We illustrate this approach by performing a structure-activity relationship study beyond the 20 naturally occurring amino acids on a single-domain antibody designed in silico to inhibit the aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide, a process closely linked to Alzheimer's disease. We found that this approach can improve, by five orders of magnitude, the anti-aggregation activity of the starting single-domain antibody, without affecting its stability. These results show that the expansion of the chemical space available to antibodies through chemical mutagenesis can be exploited for the systematic enhancement of the activity of these molecules.