Cudrania tricuspidata has diverse biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and neuroprotective effects. This study investigated the protective effects of C. tricuspidata fruit extracts (CTFE) against scopolamine (SCO)-induced neuron impairment. The neuroprotective effects of CTFE on SCO-induced memory dysfunction were confirmed in mice using the Barnes maze test. The results showed that co-treatment of SCO and CTFE increased the stay time in the target zone compared with SCO treatment alone. Similarly, the results obtained by the fear conditioning test revealed that SCO-CTFE co-treatment induced the freezing action time under both the contextual fear condition and the cued fear condition compared with SCO treatment alone. Moreover, we showed that CTFE reduced the SCO-induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, thereby increasing the acetylcholine concentration in mice hippocampal tissues. Consistent with the improvement of memory and recognition function in vivo, our in vitro results showed that CTFE induced cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity in PC12 cells and reduced SCO-induced AChE activity. In addition, the microarray results of the hippocampal tissue support our data showing that CTFE affects gene expressions associated with neurogenesis and neuronal cell differentiation markers such as spp1 and klk6. Overall, CTFE exerts a neuroprotective effect via regulation of the CREB and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and could be a therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.