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Involvement of sex hormones, oxidative stress, ACE and ACE2 activity in the impairment of renal function and remodelling in SHR.

Life sciences (2020-07-28)
Antonio F Melo Junior, Polyana Lima M Dalpiaz, Leonardo da Silva Escouto, Glauciene Januário Sousa, Rafaela Aires, Nayara Damacena Oliveira, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Ágata Lages Gava, Nazaré Souza Bissoli
ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a relevant sex and sex hormones-dependent risk factor where the cardiovascular and renal health of the population are concerned. Men experience greater losses of renal function (RF) than women, but the mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities and RF in male and female SHR. Twelve-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were submitted to either castration or SHAM surgery and divided into 4 groups, SHAM or Castrated (CAST) males or females. After 51 days we evaluated RF (inulin and sodium para-aminohippurate), ACE and ACE2 activities (fluorimetry), OS (flow cytometry), collagen deposition (picrosirius red) and protein expression (western blot). Males presented lower RF than females and castration impaired this parameter in both groups. Sexual dimorphism was not observed regarding OS and inflammation; however, castration increased this parameter more severely in males than in females. SHAM males exhibited higher collagen deposition than females, though castration increased it in both sexes, eliminating the difference. We found sexual dimorphism regarding renal ACE and ACE2 activities, which were lower in males than in females. Although castration did not alter ACE activity, it reduced ACE2 activity in females and increased it in males. These results indicate that sex hormones affect RF in SHR. As alterations in the oxidative system were capable of promoting podocyte injury, inflammation, and collagen deposition, we put forward that these effects are differently modulated by ACE and ACE2.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Formalin solution, neutral buffered, 10%, histological tissue fixative
Sigma-Aldrich
Dihydroethidium, ≥95%
Sigma-Aldrich
2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate, BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥95% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate solution, 45-55 mg/mL in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Trizma® hydrochloride, BioXtra, pH 3.5-5.0 (0.5 M in H2O), ≥99.0% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Inulin from dahlia tubers
Sigma-Aldrich
p-Aminohippuric acid sodium salt