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Honokiol Bis-Dichloroacetate Is a Selective Allosteric Inhibitor of the Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1.

Antioxidants & redox signaling (2020-05-23)
Carlos Sanchez-Martin, Daniela Menon, Elisabetta Moroni, Mariarosaria Ferraro, Ionica Masgras, Justin Elsey, Jack L Arbiser, Giorgio Colombo, Andrea Rasola
ABSTRACT

Aims: TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), the mitochondrial paralog of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family of molecular chaperones, is required for neoplastic growth in several tumor cell models, where it inhibits succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, thus favoring bioenergetic rewiring, maintenance of redox homeostasis, and orchestration of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α)-mediated pseudohypoxic program. Development of selective TRAP1 inhibitors is instrumental for targeted development of antineoplastic drugs, but it has been hampered up to now by the high degree of homology among catalytic pockets of Hsp90 family members. The vegetal derivative honokiol and its lipophilic bis-dichloroacetate ester, honokiol DCA (HDCA), are small-molecule compounds with antineoplastic activity. HDCA leads to oxidative stress and apoptosis in in vivo tumor models and displays an action that is functionally opposed to that of TRAP1, as it induces both SDH and the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), which further enhances SDH activity. We investigated whether HDCA could interact with TRAP1, inhibiting its chaperone function, and the effects of HDCA on tumor cells harboring TRAP1. Results: An allosteric binding site in TRAP1 is able to host HDCA, which inhibits TRAP1 but not Hsp90 ATPase activity. In neoplastic cells, HDCA reverts TRAP1-dependent downregulation of SDH, decreases proliferation rate, increases mitochondrial superoxide levels, and abolishes tumorigenic growth. Innovation: HDCA is a potential lead compound for the generation of antineoplastic approaches based on the allosteric inhibition of TRAP1 chaperone activity. Conclusions: We have identified a selective TRAP1 inhibitor that can be used to better dissect TRAP1 biochemical functions and to tailor novel tumor-targeting strategies.

MATERIALS
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