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  • Role of Ovarian Proteins Secreted by Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in the Early Suppression of Host Immune Response.

Role of Ovarian Proteins Secreted by Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in the Early Suppression of Host Immune Response.

Insects (2021-01-21)
Rosanna Salvia, Carmen Scieuzo, Annalisa Grimaldi, Paolo Fanti, Antonio Moretta, Antonio Franco, Paola Varricchio, S Bradleigh Vinson, Patrizia Falabella
ABSTRACT

Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid of the larval stages of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). During oviposition, T. nigriceps injects into the host body, along with the egg, the venom, the calyx fluid, which contains a Polydnavirus (T. nigriceps BracoVirus: TnBV), and the Ovarian Proteins (OPs). Although viral gene expression in the host reaches detectable levels after a few hours, a precocious disruption of the host metabolism and immune system is observed right after parasitization. This alteration appears to be induced by female secretions including TnBV venom and OPs. OPs, originating from the ovarian calyx cells, are involved in the induction of precocious symptoms in the host immune system alteration. It is known that OPs in braconid and ichneumonid wasps can interfere with the cellular immune response before Polydnavirus infects and expresses its genes in the host tissues. Here we show that T. nigriceps OPs induce several alterations on host haemocytes that trigger cell death. The OP injection induces an extensive oxidative stress and a disorganization of actin cytoskeleton and these alterations can explain the high-level of haemocyte mortality, the loss of haemocyte functionality, and so the reduction in encapsulation ability by the host.

MATERIALS
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Brand
Product Description

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