MilliporeSigma
  • A Note of Caution: Gramicidin Affects Signaling Pathways Independently of Its Effects on Plasma Membrane Conductance.

A Note of Caution: Gramicidin Affects Signaling Pathways Independently of Its Effects on Plasma Membrane Conductance.

BioMed research international (2021-11-02)
Frances Evans, Julio A Hernández, Federico Cabo, Silvia Chifflet
ABSTRACT

Gramicidin is a thoroughly studied cation ionophore widely used to experimentally manipulate the plasma membrane potential (PMP). In addition, it has been established that the drug, due to its hydrophobic nature, is capable of affecting the organization of membrane lipids. We have previously shown that modifications in the plasma membrane potential of epithelial cells in culture determine reorganizations of the cytoskeleton. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved, we explored the effects of PMP depolarization on some putative signaling intermediates. In the course of these studies, we came across some results that could not be interpreted in terms of the properties of gramicidin as an ionic channel. The purpose of the present work is to communicate these results and, in general, to draw attention to the fact that gramicidin effects can be misleadingly attributed to its ionic or electrical properties. In addition, this work also contributes with some novel findings of the modifications provoked on the signaling intermediates by PMP depolarization and hyperpolarization.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-MAP Kinase, Activated/monophosphorylated (Phosphothreonine ERK-1&2) antibody produced in mouse, ~2 mg/mL, clone ERK-PT115, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-Phosphotyrosine antibody produced in mouse, clone PT-66, ascites fluid