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Centrosome amplification mediates small extracellular vesicle secretion via lysosome disruption.

Current biology : CB (2021-02-17)
Sophie D Adams, Judit Csere, Gisela D'angelo, Edward P Carter, Maryse Romao, Teresa Arnandis, Martin Dodel, Hemant M Kocher, Richard Grose, Graça Raposo, Faraz Mardakheh, Susana A Godinho
ABSTRACT

Bidirectional communication between cells and their surrounding environment is critical in both normal and pathological settings. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which facilitate the horizontal transfer of molecules between cells, are recognized as an important constituent of cell-cell communication. In cancer, alterations in EV secretion contribute to the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that centrosome amplification is associated with and sufficient to promote small extracellular vesicle (SEV) secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. This is a direct result of lysosomal dysfunction, caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) downstream of extra centrosomes. We propose that defects in lysosome function could promote multivesicular body fusion with the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing SEV secretion. Furthermore, we find that SEVs secreted in response to amplified centrosomes are functionally distinct and activate pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These activated PSCs promote the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in heterotypic 3D cultures. We propose that SEVs secreted by cancer cells with amplified centrosomes influence the bidirectional communication between the tumor cells and the surrounding stroma to promote malignancy.

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