Patients suffering from focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and in whom this disease recurs after transplantation are likely to have an active form of the disease and to have a factor(s) (such as, albuminuric factor) present in their blood that alters glomerular permeability for albumin. We used a sequential 50 and 70% ammonium sulfate (AS) precipitation of plasma from patients with relapsing FSGS and non-FSGS nephrotic syndrome (NS), in addition to plasma from healthy individuals, to obtain both an immunoglobulin (Ig)-rich fraction (50% AS precipitate) and a non-Ig fraction (70% AS supernatant). These fractions were injected intra-arterially or intravenously/intraperitoneally into Sprague-Dawley rats, and proteinuria (g protein/mmol creatinine) was measured for 24 hours. Ig fractions eluted from immunoadsorption onto protein A were also tested. A biochemical characterization was then carried out on the 70% AS supernatants by ultrafiltration on 30 and 50 kD cut-off membranes and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Differentially stained bands were sequenced. The 70% AS supernatants from FSGS patients induced proteinuria when injected intra-arterially into normal rats. This effect was significantly different (P < 0.05) from that observed when similar fractions were prepared from the plasma of patients suffering from non-FSGS NS, but was not different from that observed with fractions from healthy individuals and even with an injection of saline solution. Injections of other plasma fractions did not induce a significant proteinuria in the FSGS group versus the non-FSGS NS group. SDS-PAGE of 70% AS supernatants revealed a protein of 23 kD that was more concentrated in AS supernatants from FSGS plasma than the other plasma samples and that was identified by microsequencing as apolipoprotein A1. After sequential ultrafiltration of 70% AS supernatants on 30 and 50 kD cut-off membranes, a second band of 43 kD was found at a much higher concentration in the FSGS samples than in non-FSGS NS and healthy individuals samples. This band is likely to correspond to a candidate albuminuric factor recently reported by another group , and was identified by microsequencing as alpha1 acid glycoprotein or orosomucoid. Consequently, purified orosomucoid from the plasma of FSGS, non-FSGS NS patients, or healthy individuals was injected intra-arterially into rats. No differences were found between the proteinuria induced in each group. These data strongly suggest that in vivo injection of material into the rat is not a reliable model for testing plasma fraction activity and that the 43 kD orosomucoid is not likely to be the albuminuric factor.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.