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Anticancer Activity of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles: Apoptotic and Immunogenic Cell Death Markers in Colon Cancer Cells.

Cancers (2021-11-14)
Katerina Spyridopoulou, Georgios Aindelis, Aglaia Pappa, Katerina Chlichlia
ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is a health problem with high mortality rates and prevalence. Thus, innovative treatment approaches need to be developed. Biogenic nanoparticles are nanomaterials that can be synthesised in biological systems and, compared to chemically synthesised nanoparticles, have better bioavailability while being more cost-effective, eco-friendlier, and less toxic. In our previous studies, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was used to synthesise selenium nanoparticles (SeNps), which were shown to inhibit colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we have further investigated SeNps' pro-apoptotic activity and their ability to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) in colon cancer cells. The SeNps' effect on Caco-2 cells growth was examined along with their potential to induce caspase activation. Moreover, the expression of typical pro-apoptotic and ICD markers were examined in SeNps-treated HT29 and CT26 cells by flow cytometry, Western blot, ELISA and fluorescence microscopy. Elevated caspase-3 activation and surface phosphatyldoserine, that subsided upon co-incubation with a pan-caspase inhibitor, were detected in SeNps-treated cells. Furthermore, nanoparticles induced modulation of the expression of various apoptosis-related proteins. We also report the detection of biomarkers involved in ICD, namely the translocation of calreticulin and ERp57, the release of HMGB1 and ATP, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from SeNps-treated cells. Moreover, RAW246.7 macrophages exhibited a higher rate of phagocytosis against treated CT26 when compared to control cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that treatment with SeNps might be an efficient strategy to destroy tumour cells by inducing apoptotic cell death and triggering immune responses.

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Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture