Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is expressed in B-lymphocytes. Mutations in Btk cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans. However, the mechanism of activation and signaling of this enzyme has not been fully investigated. We have here shown that the peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) Pin1 is a negative regulator of Btk, controlling its expression level by reducing its half-life, whereas the catalytic activity of Btk was unaffected. The negative regulatory effect of Pin1 was observed both in cell lines and in Pin(-/-) mice and was found to be dependent on a functionally intact Btk. This may constitute a feedback loop for the regulation of Btk. The target region in Btk was localized to the pleckstrin homology domain suggesting that interphase phosphorylation of serine 115 (Ser-115) in Btk is required, whereas mitosis phosphorylation of serine 21 (Ser-21) is critical. Accordingly, Pin 1 was shown to associate with Btk through binding to Ser-21 and -115, respectively, both of which lie in a classical Pin1-binding pocket. Using a phosphomitotic antibody, it was found that Btk harbors a bona fide MPM2 epitope corresponding to a phosphorylated serine or threonine residue followed by a proline. Our results indicate that the peptidylprolyl isomerase Pin1 interacts with Btk in a cell cycle-dependent manner, regulating the Btk expression level.