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  • Tumor-shed PGE(2) impairs IL2Rgammac-signaling to inhibit CD4 T cell survival: regulation by theaflavins.

Tumor-shed PGE(2) impairs IL2Rgammac-signaling to inhibit CD4 T cell survival: regulation by theaflavins.

PloS one (2009-10-09)
Sreya Chattopadhyay, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Baisakhi Saha, Juni Chakraborty, Suchismita Mohanty, Dewan Md Sakib Hossain, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Kaushik Das, Gaurisankar Sa, Tanya Das
ABSTRACT

Many tumors are associated with decreased cellular immunity and elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a known inhibitor of CD4+ T cell activation and inducer of type-2 cytokine bias. However, the role of this immunomodulator in the survival of T helper cells remained unclear. Since CD4+ T cells play critical roles in cell-mediated immunity, detail knowledge of the effect tumor-derived PGE2 might have on CD4+ T cell survival and the underlying mechanism may, therefore, help to overcome the overall immune deviation in cancer. By culturing purified human peripheral CD4+ T cells or Jurkat cells with spent media of theaflavin- or celecoxib-pre-treated MCF-7 cells, we show that tumor-shed PGE2 severely impairs interleukin 2 receptor gammac (IL2Rgammac)-mediated survival signaling in CD4+ T cells. Indeed, tumor-shed PGE2 down-regulates IL2Rgammac expression, reduces phosphorylation as well as activation of Janus kinase 3 (Jak-3)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat-5) and decreases Bcl-2/Bax ratio thereby leading to activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Constitutively active Stat-5A (Stat-5A1 6) over-expression efficiently elevates Bcl-2 levels in CD4+ T cells and protects them from tumor-induced death while dominant-negative Stat-5A over-expression fails to do so, indicating the importance of Stat-5A-signaling in CD4+ T cell survival. Further support towards the involvement of PGE2 comes from the results that (a) purified synthetic PGE2 induces CD4+ T cell apoptosis, and (b) when knocked out by small interfering RNA, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-defective tumor cells fail to initiate death. Interestingly, the entire phenomena could be reverted back by theaflavins that restore cytokine-dependent IL2Rgammac/Jak-3/Stat-5A signaling in CD4+ T cells thereby protecting them from tumor-shed PGE2-induced apoptosis. These data strongly suggest that tumor-shed PGE2 is an important factor leading to CD4+ T cell apoptosis during cancer and raise the possibility that theaflavins may have the potential as an effective immunorestorer in cancer-bearer.

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