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  • COMMD3 loss drives invasive breast cancer growth by modulating copper homeostasis.

COMMD3 loss drives invasive breast cancer growth by modulating copper homeostasis.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR (2023-04-19)
Janelle L Hancock, Murugan Kalimutho, Jasmin Straube, Malcolm Lim, Irma Gresshoff, Jodi M Saunus, Jason S Lee, Sunil R Lakhani, Kaylene J Simpson, Ashley I Bush, Robin L Anderson, Kum Kum Khanna
ABSTRACT

Despite overall improvement in breast cancer patient outcomes from earlier diagnosis and personalised treatment approaches, some patients continue to experience recurrence and incurable metastases. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular changes that allow transition from a non-aggressive state to a more aggressive phenotype. This transition is governed by a number of factors. As crosstalk with extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for tumour cell growth and survival, we applied high throughput shRNA screening on a validated '3D on-top cellular assay' to identify novel growth suppressive mechanisms. A number of novel candidate genes were identified. We focused on COMMD3, a previously poorly characterised gene that suppressed invasive growth of ER + breast cancer cells in the cellular assay. Analysis of published expression data suggested that COMMD3 is normally expressed in the mammary ducts and lobules, that expression is lost in some tumours and that loss is associated with lower survival probability. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of an independent tumour cohort to investigate relationships between COMMD3 protein expression, phenotypic markers and disease-specific survival. This revealed an association between COMMD3 loss and shorter survival in hormone-dependent breast cancers and in particularly luminal-A-like tumours (ER+/Ki67-low; 10-year survival probability 0.83 vs. 0.73 for COMMD3-positive and -negative cases, respectively). Expression of COMMD3 in luminal-A-like tumours was directly associated with markers of luminal differentiation: c-KIT, ELF5, androgen receptor and tubule formation (the extent of normal glandular architecture; p < 0.05). Consistent with this, depletion of COMMD3 induced invasive spheroid growth in ER + breast cancer cell lines in vitro, while Commd3 depletion in the relatively indolent 4T07 TNBC mouse cell line promoted tumour expansion in syngeneic Balb/c hosts. Notably, RNA sequencing revealed a role for COMMD3 in copper signalling, via regulation of the Na+/K+-ATPase subunit, ATP1B1. Treatment of COMMD3-depleted cells with the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate, significantly reduced invasive spheroid growth via induction of apoptosis. Overall, we found that COMMD3 loss promoted aggressive behaviour in breast cancer cells.

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Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-COMMD3 antibody produced in rabbit, Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution