• Antagonistic action of GPS2 and KDM1A at enhancers governs alternative macrophage activation by interleukin 4.

Antagonistic action of GPS2 and KDM1A at enhancers governs alternative macrophage activation by interleukin 4.

Nucleic acids research (2023-01-08)
Zhiqiang Huang, Astradeni Efthymiadou, Ning Liang, Rongrong Fan, Eckardt Treuter

The Th2 cytokine interleukin 4 (IL4) promotes macrophage differentiation into alternative subtypes and plays important roles in physiology, in metabolic and inflammatory diseases, in cancer and in tissue regeneration. While the regulatory transcription factor networks governing IL4 signaling are already well-characterized, it is currently less understood which transcriptional coregulators are involved and how they operate mechanistically. In this study, we discover that G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2), a core subunit of the HDAC3 corepressor complex assembled by SMRT and NCOR, represses IL4-dependent enhancer activation in mouse macrophages. Our genome-wide and gene-specific characterization revealed that, instead of directly repressing STAT6, chromatin-bound GPS2 cooperates with SMRT and NCOR to antagonize enhancer activation by lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A, LSD1). Mechanistically, corepressor depletion increased KDM1A recruitment to enhancers linked to IL4-induced genes, accompanied by demethylation of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 without affecting H3K4me1/2, the classic KDM1A substrates for demethylation in other cellular contexts. This in turn caused enhancer and gene activation already in the absence of IL4/STAT6 and sensitized the STAT6-dependent IL4 responsiveness of macrophages. Thus, our work identified with the antagonistic action of a GPS2-containing corepressor complex and the lysine demethylase KDM1A a hitherto unknown epigenetic corepressor-coactivator switching mechanism that governs alternative macrophage activation.

Product Number
Product Description

ANTI-FLAG® antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
Anti-PTGS1 (AB1) antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody
LSD1 Inhibitor II, S2101, The LSD1 Inhibitor II, S2101 controls the biological activity of LSD1. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Cell Signaling applications.
Anti-acetyl-Histone H3 (Lys9) Antibody, Upstate®, from rabbit
GSK-LSD1, ≥98% (HPLC)