We have investigated the ability of chlorophyllin (CHL) to interact with acridine mutagen ICR-191 (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino)acridine) and also its ability to decrease binding of ICR-191 to DNA in a simple three-component competition system: CHL-ICR-DNA. Our data indicate a strong association of ICR-191 with CHL, stronger even than the association of ICR-191 with DNA. Calculations based on the measured affinity data show that a two- to three-fold excess of CHL reduces by about two-fold the concentration of the mutagen-DNA complex. We also exposed human leukemic HL-60 cells to ICR-191 in the absence and presence of CHL and measured the mutagen-induced DNA damage. The extent of DNA damage was assessed by analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. While ICR-191 induced significant increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), particularly in DNA replicating cells, this increase was totally abolished in the cells treated with ICR-191 in the presence of CHL.
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