Immunocytochemical investigations of fixed cells are used to enhance diagnostic accuracy in haematology and oncology. The alkaline-phosphatase/anti(alkaline phosphatase) technique, immunoperoxidase and the avidin-biotin technique are the most important methods in immunocytochemistry. Tyramide-enhanced immunostaining is a new powerful technique. Peripheral blood smears and cytospins of mononuclear blood leucocytes have been analysed with this technique and these methods are also useful for analysis of bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, serous effusions and fine-needle aspirates. This review describes the results of immunocytochemistry in patients with B- and T-lymphoproliferative disorders, acute leukaemias and Hodgkin's disease. These methods are also useful for the detection of epithelial malignant cells. Immunocytochemistry supports the morphological analysis of cells in these disorders.
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