Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common manifestation of cardiovascular disease and has an important prognostic value in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been intensively investigated, and one of these (BsmI) already has been associated with survival in the dialysis population. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of VDR polymorphism (BsmI) on the development of ventricular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. Subject and methods. The subjects were 80 patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, and 40 healthy controls. Clinical and laboratory parameters, including genetic variation in VDR gene (BsmI), were assessed. In addition, echocardiography and intima-media thickness were performed for all subjects. There was no significant difference in the distribution of BsmI genotypes either in patients or in the control group. The frequency of the B allele of BsmI polymorphism (41.6%) in dialysis patients was similar to that of healthy control subjects (39.2%). Patients with BB genotype had significantly lower serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D compared to both Bb and bb genotypes. The number of B alleles was positively correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), but not with intima-media thickness. These results suggest that the B alleles of the BsmI polymorphism could be considered as novel markers of altered vitamin D signaling in ESRD patients, and this alteration in BB genotype produces an increase in left ventricle mass.