HBV infections leads to severe public health problems around the world, especially in China. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HBV reverse transcription is fundamental for optimization of treatment and solution to drug-resistance. Recently, the main structural basis involved in the process of HBV reverse transcription and the cis-elements were revealed by means of biochemistry and genetics. The entire process of reverse transcription is completed mainly through the first template switch mediated by the P- epsilon structure; the second template switch mediated by 5E/3E and M structure; and the third template switch mediated by 5' r / 3' r structure. The important structure and the cis-elements involved in this process are the focus of this review, at the same time, an overview of the progress in relevent studies is demonstrated to show the whole picture of the HBV reverse process.
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